This is Julius Pollux' (Ioulios Poludeukes) Onomasticon, a thesaurus or dictionary of terms arranged by subject rather than alphabetically. It dates from the 2nd century, and is arranged in ten books. Aldus's edition of 1502 is an editio princeps – the first printing ever. It features a Latin index in the first seven pages.
View the pages of the 1502 Pollux.